Like all towns on the Cape, Mashpee’s topography is that of sandy soil, small ponds and inlets, surrounded by the pines and oaks indigenous to the area. The town’s shoreline is framed by Waquoit Bay to the west and Popponesset Bay to the east, with several rivers, brooks and small ponds in the area. The town contains South Cape Beach State Park along Dead Neck and Waquoit Bay, and the Lowell Holly Reservation, comprising the land between Wakeby and Mashpee Ponds. Mashpee also borders a small area of Otis Air National Guard Base, Joint Base Cape Cod, and Camp Edwards in the northwest portion of the town.

The permanent, year-round population has nearly doubled since 1990, with the number of residents increasing since the late 20th century.

Mashpee has more than five miles of sandy beaches on Gulf Stream-warmed Nantucket and Vineyard Sounds, extensive waterfront on Waquoit and Popponesset Bays, and four of the largest freshwater ponds on Cape Cod all for boating, bathing and fishing. Hub location gives access to twenty or more golf courses within a fifteen-minute drive, including three world-class championship courses in Mashpee itself. Mashpee is also home to the nationally recognized Mashpee Commons, a community shopping center noted for its traditional New England-style architecture.