Virginia is a state in the Southeastern United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the „Old Dominion“ due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America, and „Mother of Presidents“ because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision.
The area’s history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony’s early politics and plantation economy. Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution and joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War, during which Richmond was made the Confederate capital and Virginia’s northwestern counties seceded to form the state of West Virginia.
he Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia’s Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the Susquehanna River and the James River. Many of Virginia’s rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay.
The climate of Virginia is temperate and becomes increasingly warmer and more humid farther south and east. The Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on eastern and southeastern coastal areas of the state. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean, even the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summer and winter, particularly given the state climate’s subtropical classification, which is typical of states in the Upper South.
Virginia has the highest concentration of technology workers of any state, and the fourth-highest number of technology workers after California, Texas, and New York. Computer chips became the state’s highest-grossing export in 2006, surpassing its traditional top exports of coal and tobacco combined, reaching a total export value of $717 million in 2015. Northern Virginia, once considered the state’s dairy capital, now hosts software, communication technology, defense contracting companies, particularly in the Dulles Technology Corridor.